Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky) (1863–1936) was the founding First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. He studied at the St. Petersburg Theological Academy, where he was tonsured a monk and later become its rector. He then was rector of Moscow Theological Academy. In 1907 he was consecrated as Bishop of Cheboksary, and later became Metropolitan of Kiev in 1918. Along with other émigré hierarchs, he helped form the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, becoming its First Hierarch. As a theologian Metropolitan Anthony is best known for his works The Moral Idea of the Dogma of the Holy Trinity and The Doctrine of Redemption. He also wrote many other works on many other spiritual disciplines such as moral and pastoral theology, apologetics, and canon law. He reposed in 1936 in Sremsky Karlovtsi, Serbia.